On the other hand, Baldacci, et. They have noted that a range of resources is needed to support the understanding of language, literacy and numeracy in vocational education and training targeted appropriately and including examples of good practice. Purpose The purpose of the study is to determine the differences in the e-learning opportunities between a developed country vocational high school HC and a developing country vocational high school CTIVHS and to develop an action plan correspondingly.
During, the five days 7. Where, researchers took campus tours in guide of the schools teachers. The Technology department teams in two schools had organized several meetings with the researchers about intranet; LMS; student support; e-learning; portfolios; assessment reports of the students and staff, internal and external verification; and internal and external assessment.
Smart board , blackboard or whiteboard? Each item in the questionnaire was coded.
Walking in Two Worlds
As a further analysis, independent sample t-test was used to interpret the data. The differences are narrated in this article and the observation results were supported by the interview results. Observations HC was observed to be a systematic, a disciplined and a well equipped school. HC provides a multitude of education courses and programs that can help students to obtain a certification or a degree to take place in today's competitive job market.
To be a part time student or a full-time student was up-to students. As for the academic activities, computer labs were equipped with updated tools and programs in HC: Computer networking and multimedia were provided in each computer. The setting of the lab was also charming. In other words students, teachers and even the parents used LMS greatly. It was observed that through this system that waste of paper was prevented and e-learning was integrated to the whole components of learning and integration oriented activities. Some students using this portal were observed to be more relaxed than CTIVHS students, since they did not have to submit their projects on paper.
Unfortunately, LMS appeared to be lacking at vocational high schools in most of the developing countries. In HC, the tracks of evidences of student work printouts of the print screens of the programs, marked papers were all kept in student portfolios. The school staff was able to keep track of student portfolios for one semester and then gave it back to their students.
So, its usage was not common. While one of these schools was in e-learning paradise, the other school was not able to deliver most of the e-learning applications: It was technologically locked-in.
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On the other hand, both HC and CTIVHS were involving their students at all stages of the industrial visits motivating them and helping them to take the full advantage of all learning opportunities presented. This was something good that brought a different dimension to students' education. HC teachers were observed to be using the following effective strategies.
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Wearing hats and using mobile phones in the classrooms were not allowed, in both of the schools. At both schools students fall into the age range of 14 and 99 There was both further education and foundation education students. On the other hand, the oldest student in CTIVHS There was only secondary education students was 19 years old, and the youngest student was 14 years old. In HC, there were a minimum 12 and a maximum 19 students in a class which was a fairly small amount for teachers dealing with each student individually.
That is to say, some classes were very good for individual explanations and some classes were very crowded. On the other hand, in CTIVHS, students were graded on a scale from ranging from 1 to 10 depending on their module assessment results. The lack of the educational resources affected the quality of the education. In addition to this, while HC teachers stated that they take electronic attendance every morning; CTIVHS teachers said that they have never used such a system before.
While all of the HC teachers used e-books in their classes; 60 per cent of the teachers had used e-books before. They also indicated that their schools were adequate for reaching their objectives and they were happy with the communication and the interaction established with the teachers. All of students, in both of the schools, stated that they want to have a higher school diploma.
More than 80 per cent of the students, in both of the schools, claimed that they were not loaded with unnecessary assignments. While all of the HC students said that they had a laptop or a computer at home; 50 per cent of the students said that they did not have any.
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On the other hand, students in HC claimed that their teachers were more flexible in giving additional time to submit their assignments, when necessary. E-Learning Application Scores The teachers in which are helpless in technology are expressed as technologically locked-in. Table 3. They would not be so technologically locked-in. However, there must be put more emphasize on the reform of vocational schools. Vocational Education should not be seen as an alternative path in education for students, who have lower expectancies. Vocational schools should not be perceived as having easier access for a diploma.
The reform plan is demonstrated by the researchers in Figure 1. The root of the e-education is the availability of e-tools. There could not be any e-education without e-tools. Getting help from the private sector can be the first step in order to make more e-tools available in schools. However, making e-tools available do not mean that teachers have the ability to use them. The second step, after making the necessary the e-tools available for teachers use should be explaining the usage of these tools.
For this, researchers suggest two pathways: Cooperation in the schools and cooperation within schools. For example, ICT teachers can take this role of delivering e-learning application to the teachers within the school. Cooperation within the schools, especially in different countries would be very good. School partnership or e-twin school cooperation may be the names given to this kind of relationships among schools.
In the light of these findings, vocational schools in developing countries should improve their curriculum, self assessment reports, internal verification systems, assessment and verification methods, lesson plans and scheme of work. For all of these, of course action plans should be prepared. Teachers and administrators who work in partnership reap greater returns in student achievement Cantwell, ; Southern Regional Education Board, Administrators in effective middle schools prioritize collaboration and shared decision-making.
In addition, a high level of collaboration among teachers enhances the learning environment Whitmore, Figure 1. E-learning Reform Tree The teacher's role should be a supporter and facilitator of the students' new learning experiences. The teacher must provide activities such as stimulating students with ideas, commenting on and praising the work being done, suggesting alternatives or better methods of handling details are common to all creative learning.
However, without the necessary instructional technologies teachers found themselves in a desperate situation as in the case of CTIVHS. Besides the political, social and economic imperatives for reforming our learning and teaching practices, we need to be very clear about the educational imperatives for adopting e-learning Naidu, As a consequence of technological challenges, quality of instruction has become a central topic in the discussion between educators, researchers, and policymakers.
Two Worlds 2
However, the nature and the intensity of the gap were not clear and well defined. There had been a need for in depth studies to securitize this unanswered question. This study is expected to give answer to this problem to a certain extent. Two vocational schools, selected from a developed country and from a developing country were put into closer examination for this purpose. On the other hand, HC teachers do not have any worries about the same issues. Hence, every school must have a LMS for surviving in this technology age.
Differences were also observed between teaching activities with and without technology and student behavior with and without technology. HC was in an e-learning paradise. With the growing emphasis of educational decentralization, head teachers for example, headmasters, area heads, and headmaster assistants may have a greater effect on the improvement of school performance than never before.
Head teachers among schools should work more collaboratively for more success. Cross cultural studies could be implemented to examine and compare schools in various economically and sociologically diverse settings.
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Global thought involves widening e- applications all over the world. Each component of e-learning should be given special emphasis to maintain better education. In sum, global e-learning reform could be maintained only through global movement See Figure 2. They all agreed that they were happy with the education provided at their schools.
This study brings a unique perspective by revealing the constraints experienced in technologically locked in schools in comparison with the technologically advantaged schools. Further studies focuses on technologically locked in schools could bring new directions to e-learning in an era of globalization. Since, HC was a well-equipped, well organized college with good internal and external assessment procedures.
When schools are resource poor, one has to seek ways to access organizational resources from their external environments to improve school performance. However, there were not many researches on this. Further researches should be conducted to find ways to lock out the schools in developing countries.